Raїa ZAЇMOVA

Raїa ZAЇMOVA

UNE CONGREGATION CATHOLIQUE FEMININE A SALONIQUE OTTOMANE ET LES BULGARES

Etudes balkaniques (Sofia) 2022 N 2

Raїa ZAЇMOVA

Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Bulgaria

AbstractThe present article looks briefly at the history of the Roman Catholic Congregation (the Daughters of Charity of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul) who proclaim the Gospel among the Levantine peoples. The religious institute of women devoted to active charitable work. They settled in Ottoman Salonica around the 1850s. Their activities were closely linked to those of the Lazarists, depending on the same superior of the Mission. Referring to the French archives of their house in Salonica and personal documents, the author briefly presents the objectives of their mission, which, until 1913, was facilitated by the Franco-Ottoman capitulations. The schools of Daughters of Charity were attended by children of different nations, including Bulgarians. The text is an initial attempt to study the schools of the women’s congregations in the Balkans.

Keywords: Daughters of Charity, Women Education, Salonica, Modernization of Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian Uniates



LES AGENTS DIPLOMATIQUES DE FRANCE ET LES ÉTUDES SUD-EST EUROPÉENNES    

Raїa ZAЇMOVA

Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Bulgaria

The French Diplomatic Agents and the South-East European Studies

Abstract: The text reviews newly-retrieved documents of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs from the 1960s. They treat the Balkan theme in the context of the European communications. The information gathered by the French diplomats reflects the inter-Balkan relations during those years. The emphasis falls on the attempts for starting a dialogue between the Balkan countries, establishing contacts in various scientific fields, founding the Institute of Balkan Studies in Sofia and the First International Congress of South-East European Studies in 1966. There are brief reviews of the activities of some politicians (Ivan Bachev) and researchers (Nikolay Todorov, Emile Condouraki, Vassilka Tăpkova – Zaïmova), who have contributed to these emerging processes, as well as the role of Sofia for the good neighbourly relations. The additional material from the home archives of the author sheds light on particular segments of the resonance of the French policy in Bulgaria.

Keywords: France, European politics, Balkans, First International Congress of South-East European Studies



QUELQUES TRAITS DES RAPPORTS LAZARISTES – BULGARES-UNIS A SALONIQUE OTTOMANE

Raїa ZAЇMOVA


Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Bulgaria

Some remarks about the relations between the Lazarists and Uniate Bulgarians in Ottoman Thessaloniki

Abstract: The study is mostly based on documents from the Archives of Congregation of the Mission. The beginning of the Catholic missions in Thessaloniki is traced and especially those of Congregation of the Mission, which replaced the Jesuits (1782-1783). Special attention is paid on the relations between foreign missions and the Bulgarians who accepted Pope’s supremacy, known as Uniates. The objects of research are the first Bulgarian bishops Nil Izvorov, Lazar Mladenov and Epiphane Scanoff, whose administrative activities are directly dependent upon the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide and the Ottoman authorities. The French-Ottoman Capitulations (until 1913) aid the Catholic missions but do not influence denomination changes among the Bulgarians. These changes depend on the Exarchate’s actions and on the agents of the Patriarchate, who are very often sent by Russia, “the protector of the Balkan Christians”. The Ottoman authorities involve only in cases when the Christian communities seek solutions to administrative issues or need support in conflicts inside the respective community.

Keywords: Catholic Missions, Ottoman Authorities, Unionism, Salonika, Bulgarian Bishops


LES CAPITULATIONS FRANCO-OTTOMANES ET LES INSTITUTIONS EDUCATIVES ET CULTURELLES DANS LES BALKANS (XIXE – XXE SIECLES)

Études balkaniques (Sofia) 2023, N 4

Raїa ZAЇMOVA

Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Bulgaria

The French – Ottoman Capitulations and the Balkan Educational and Cultural Institutions

Abstract: The capitulations between France and the Ottoman Empire (1535-1536) opened the way of trade and navigation, as well as of the Catholic missions in the Levant. The training of consuls and dragomans in Eastern languages began in the 17th – 18th century, when Capuchins and Jesuits were the main school teachers in Constantinople and Paris. The beginning of the Ottoman Empire’s decline forced its rulers to turn to France, with which they had not had military conflicts and which was famous with the scientific and technological progress. Although the diplomatic relations between the two countries were unequal and inconsistent by the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, France managed to gain advantage over the other Western countries and to implement its own education system within the Eastern Empire. Thanks to the capitulations, which had been renewed many times over the years, Catholic missions opened their schools and enjoyed respect of the Ottoman rulers. In the period after the Crimean War, the education following European patterns gained popularity. The Catholic Congregations that had been created, along with some secular ones, attracted the attention of both foreigners and Ottoman subjects. « The Enlightenment Language » opened up an opportunity for modernization of mentality and, at the same time, provoked nationalist reactions from the students. French cultural and educational institutions underwent significant changes after the collapse of Turkey and the creation of national Balkan states.

Keywords: French – Ottoman capitulations, catholic missions, education, nationalism

Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Pinterest
StumbleUpon
Scroll to Top